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kindle ´ Virolution Ò ´ johnscyclingdiary Í ❮PDF / Epub❯ ☉ Virolution ✩ Author Frank Ryan – Johns-cycling-diary.co.uk Fachver offentlichungen des Autors zum Thema R yan FP 2004 Human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease a symbiotic perspective Journal of the Royal Society ofIology Part 3 HERVs in miscellaneous and auto mune diseases Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 415 424 R yan FP 2009 An alternative approach to medical genetics based on m ern evolutionary biology Part 4 HERVs in cancer Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 474 480 R yan FP 2009 An alternative approach to medical genetics based on m ern evolutionary biology Part 5 epigenetics and genomic duplications Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 531 5 I've been reading about the ideas Ryan presents in his book for years ever since the junk DNA in our genome was first announced It never made sense in an evolutionary perspective that we would build a large database of useless information There's got to be to itWith the discovery of mimivirus and pandoravirus there seem to be new ideas about what viruses are what what role they play in evolution and environmental adaptation Ryan as I believe the right idea co evolutionGood book well written and a nice mix of science and anecdote I suspect it will need a revision in the next few years to incorporate some of the recent discoveries

Frank Ryan ï Virolution pdf

P 2009 An alternative approach to medical genetics based on m ern evolutionary biology Part 1 mutation and symbiogenesis Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 272 277 Ryan FP 2009 An alternative approach to medical genetics based on modern evolutionary biology Part 2 retroviral symbiosis in embry ogy and normal physiology Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 324 331 R yan FP 2009 An alternative approach to medical genetics based on m ern evolutionary b The starling and scary role played by viruses in biological evolutionA major thesis of this amazing book is that plants and animals including most significantly humans co evolve with viruses The term virolution presumably coined by Dr Ryan who is both a physician and an evolutionary biologist comes from the words virus and evolution but also suggesting the word revolution The idea is that instead of being merely agents of pathology viruses can also work together with their host to help it survive Ryan gives the example of grey suirrels imported from America invading the territory of red suirrels in Britain He writesAt first naturalists assumed that the grey suirrel was winning the survival battle because it was larger and aggressive than the native counterpart but now we know that the grey suirrel is carrying a suirrel pox virus that causes no disease symptoms in its symbiotic partner but appears to be lethal to the red suirrel p 96In other words what we have here is war by an organism's own viral pathogens Survival of the fittest may include carrying around lethal viruses that can wipe out your ecological competition Ryan notes We believe that HIV 1 the main virus of AIDS was transferred to people from a specific group of chimpanzees We also know that in chimpanzees HIV 1 grows freely and reproduces in their internal organs and tissues but it causes no evidence of disease p 86So what apparently happened is some bush meat eaters shot some chimps ate andor sold the meat and humans got the virus Revenge of the dead chimp Well perhaps But look at it this way Imagine humans in prehistory or even humans a few centuries ago in the Congo jungle looking to take over some chimp territory After some close contact the virus jumps from the chimps to humans and the humans die Survival of the fittestRyan refers to this as an example of aggressive symbiosis and this is how it works in general two similar species occupying similar ecological niches come into contact Which is to prevail? One carries a virus like a loaded gun in its tissues The virus jumps to the other species and typically is extraordinarily virulent and kills them Or perhaps there is a dueling of viruses one from each species At some point the only survivors are those with immunity to the virusesRyan makes a further point with this example uoting Max Essex on the deliberate use of a myxomatosis virus to kill rabbits in Australia Thevirus killedsome 998% of the rabbits But then two things happened Number one within four years the resistant minority grew so you had a different population of disease resistant rabbits And number two the myxomatosis virus that remained as a persistent infection in the rabbits was less virulent so I think there is crystal clear evidence that both the host and the virus attenuated themselves for optimal survival in that situation Further and this brings us back to the previous point any new rabbits brought in would be at a disadvantage because they would have no immunity to the virus and the surviving rabbits would pp 87 88In other words looked at from an evolutionary perspective host and virus worked together in a mutualistic symbiosis In my mind this raises the uestion what really did happen to the Neanderthal? We do know what happened to the natives of the Americas when they came into contact with the smallpox virus carried by the Europeans Could a virus from homo sapiens have wiped out the Neanderthal or at least helped humans become the sole hominid survivors?In the largest sense this idea of host and virus working together would seem to be powerful than any kind of sharp tooth and massive claw in the struggle for survival The old idea of survival of the fittest must now be seen in a different light I have said for many years that everything works toward an ecology and everything works toward a symbiosis meaning that in a typical environment if one species is able to work together with another they may enjoy an advantage over rivals Conseuently those species that are able to form symbiotic relationships are the ones likely to survive What this means for evolutionary theory as Dr Ryan has pointed out is that symbiosis is a much important part of evolutionary biology than has previously been thought My guess is that the revolution begun by Lynn Margulis who first saw the eukaryotic cell as a mutualistic development from parasitic relationships will be accelerated by the work of Ryan and others to the point where the prevailing view from evolutionists will be that it is cooperation rather than competition that most characterizes fitnessAnd that is what makes this book so important It signals a great shift in our understanding of how evolution worksBut that is not all Ryan shows that the so called junk DNA in genomes is anything but Much of it is viral endogenous retroviruses and it is there as evidence that humans and pre humans went through many periods of aggressive symbiosis including the horrid plague stage We now see that plagues from an evolutionary perspective are common and part of how the evolutionary process formed us Further Ryan writes about how viral genes can help with the development of the embryo in the womb In other words viral DNA in part directs the protein building that makes for human beings and indeed for many forms of lifeIn the latter parts of the book Ryan explores the role of viruses in autoimmune diseases and cancer He also considers the role of hybridization in evolutionary change and that of epigenetics Particularly interesting is the work of Eva Jablonka and Marion J Lamb that suggests that new species might arise through the inheritance of acuired epigenetic changes causing Ryan to remark they were resurrecting the long discredited spectre of Lamarckian evolution p 312The book is dense difficult and perhaps revolutionary in scope Dennis Littrell author of “Understanding Evolution and Ourselves”

epub ê ï Frank Ryan

VirolutionFachver offentlichungen des Autors zum Thema R yan FP 2004 Human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease a symbiotic perspective Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97 560 565 R yan FP 2006 Genomic creativity and natural selection a modern synt sis Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88 655 672 R yan FP 2007 Viruses as symbionts Symbiosis 44 11 21 R yan FP in Vorbereitung Viruses in cyclical symbioses In Lynn Margulis Hg The Self in Evolution R yan F The cover made me worry that this was going to be complete pseudo science but it’s not bad at all It’s a little scatterbrained — although the title is Virolution a good chunk of it involves epigenetics and it isn’t very clearly linked to the viral theme The main thrust of the book is evolution didn’t just happen by natural selection but also through symbiosis That symbiosis includes symbiosis with bacteria and viruses as we co evolvedIt’s not something I disagree with and Ryan lays out the ideas clearly and informatively I’m not sure I see such a huge role for viruses in evolution at least not in the sense that he does I don’t think it really modifies natural selection that much Perhaps I’m just a little too familiar with stuff like Lynn Margulis’ theories about symbiosis? I’d always seen a fairly big role for symbiosis in evolution because of course it drives co evolution to establish stable mutualismNot a bad book but perhaps a little too enthusiastic about its claims and a little too scatterbrained about the contentOriginally reviewed for The Bibliophibian