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Read & Download Traité sur la tolérance ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ↠ [Read] ➫ Traité sur la tolérance ➳ Voltaire – Convaincu de l'innocence de Calas exécuté en 1762 Voltaire met sa plume au service de la justice pour demander sa réhabilitation Le négociant huguenDes croyances et l'esprit de toléranceUne réflexion très actuelle sur le système judiciaire la responsabilité des juges et les effets pervers des lois. Apologetic treatise of Voltaire around the 'Calas' case This man a protestant was wrongly convicted and executed for the murder of his son Voltaire succeeded in rehabilitating him This treatise is rather confused but it gives a good plea to eradicate intolerance However Voltaire did not think that the Huguenots were to be restored in their full rights he refers tot the English example to defend a light form of discrimination

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Convaincu de l'innocence de Calas exécuté en Voltaire met sa plume au service de la justice pour demander sa réhabilitation Le négociant huguenot étai. Il faut donc ue les hommes commencent par n'être pas fanatiues pour mériter la tolérance Voltaire's treaty on tolerance is as brilliant as it is educating In its core message it has the same stringency and power today as two and a half centuries ago when he wrote it Knowing the effect of writing or talking freely in an oppressively unified environment political or religious or both anyone can imagine the bravery of standing up to the evils of one's own society one's own religion It is easy enough to criticize other religions and their followers and the easiest thing in the world to dismiss atheists as lacking depth imagination and spiritual intelligence but to stand up among the people with whom you share a cultural background and call out to them to be tolerant respectful and open minded towards other religions and atheists when you have seen the dangerous effects of free thinking in courts in neighbourhoods in churches that reuires courage Voltaire risked than an impolite or insulting answer when he wrote to tell his Catholic countrymen to let their god take care of the punishment of so called heretics if she didn't approve of the kind of worship the protestants had chosen If god is divine so Voltaire's thought she doesn't need humans to be judges on divine matters She is perfectly capable to punish people himherself should she really consider that adeuate If she is not divine it is implicitly understood people should most definitely not kill each other because they have different opinions on rituals and theological discoursesHis essay is strictly focused on achieving justice for the family Calas whose treatment by French justices and priests had shaken Voltaire and the intellectual Paris society to move into action Carefully arguing for tolerance he takes a theist and monarchist position and cites from historical sources to point out the evidence for successful tolerance in ancient and contemporary societies His idea of co habitation would probably not be enough for a human rights supporter of today as he clearly grants the dominating religion privileges than other lifestyles But looking back on two centuries of continued massacres in France a first step towards peaceful respect seems both reasonable and laudableErudite witty focused on the result Voltaire shows his humanity in his hard work for justice too often obstructed for reasons of politics or faith His willingness to speak up and declare solidarity with an oppressed family is still inspiring as is his irony and delightful proseI dare to claim his arguments are well worth reading even if you do not happen to be a theist monarchist He doesn't believe in the right to absolute exclusive truth He believes in open discussion A lively example of humanity at work

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Traité sur la toléranceT accusé du meurtre de son fils ui voulait se convertir au catholicismeAvec une ironie mordante et un style inimitable l'écrivain plaide pour le respect. In 1762 a young man committed suicide in his home in Toulouse This would be a tragedy for any family but the tragedy of the Calas family would be even bigger Since the whole family was at home at the time when the son commited suicide and importantly since they were Huguenots the Catholic mob accused them of killing their son Jean Calas the father was convicted and was tortured to death on the wheel The sons were forced into a monastery prison the daughters were forced into convents prison while the mother lost all her positions and was to end her life in poverty While the French Catholics were approving of this trial or at best looking away one man was disgusted by it all This man was Voltaire and he decided to write a treatise to promote religious tolerance During his stay in England 1726 1728 Voltaire became acuainted with philosopher John Locke In his Letter on Toleration 1689 Locke argued that no church could have a legitimate claim to power Civilians agreed to a social contract whereby the sovereign would gain legislative and executive powers so civilians only had to comit themselves to the state churches had no right to claim power over civilians since this power would be unfounded In the Treatise on Toleration Voltaire decides to pick another route to toleration He writes as if he were a Catholic 90% of France were Catholics so this is the audience he aims at and from this point he argues for toleration for all the religious minorities especially the Huguenots He wrote this in a time of heavy persecution by the French churches and a mass exodus of Huguenots to Holland and England The text itself is not really one whole; each chapter of the 25 is short and deals with a different subjects There are some main themes in this treatise but Voltaire was no philosopher or scientist and this shows in his text It would have been better if he picked a structure and made some choices in what to include and what to excludeIn broad outlines he uses the Calas execution as a motivation to write this treatise Next he traces the attitude that lead to this particular execution but importantly religious fanaticism in general to the Reformation After this looks at the state of religious tolerance in ancient Greece the Roman Empire and early Christendom He concludes that these times saw religious tolerance and that the only intolerance came from christians nowadays we would call the martyrologies of early Christendom fake news After this brief historical overview Voltaire states that religious intolerance leads to the cessation of Reason and to abuse He then asks the reader this important uestion what does Scripture say about tolerance He shows that according to books of the Old Testament the Jews knew long periods of tolerance and according to the New Testament the message of Jesus is tolerance and no compulsion I think this last part is important since fanatical christians who see Christ as saviour would do well to ponder this fact He underlines this important point with the plea for tolerance of some famous writers churchfathers philosophers etcAt this point the book becomes a collection of short statements He tries to show with a dialogue how unreasonable intolerance is and uses a letter supposedly written by a Jesuit to encourage attacks on non Jesuits to show the danger in practice Besides this Voltaire reasons from a practical standpoint the exodus of Huguenots makes Holland and England militarily and economically stronger so intolerance leads to a weaker nationThe most important message is contained in chapter 18 which basically summarizes the whole treatise is intolerance justified Only to destroy intolerance according to Voltaire This reminded me of the famous uotation of Karl Raimund Popper who claimed that we should be intolerant of intolerance The hidden message of this chapter is of course that the state should actively exterminate religious intolerance and fanaticism this clearly is Locke's influence on VoltaireVoltaire endeavors to establish universal tolerance Posing as a Catholic he hoped to convince the Catholic French majority that this was the best option I'm not in a position to judge if Voltaire succeeded in this but my guess is that the horrors of the Terror during the French Revolution were partly a reaction to centuries of Catholic persecution censure and oppression Intolerant people will reap what they sow I'm also not in the position to make claims about the importance and influence of this treatise; as a book I found it unstructured and at times too random as if it lacks a main objective but as a plea for religious tolerance the contents are not less important It looks like Voltaire wanted universal tolerance so bad that he put all the arguments philosophical judicialpolitical ethical practical he could find into the blender and came up with this treatise As with all of Voltaire's works and the works of other contemporaries like Montesuieu and Diderot this book can be read in a couple of hours This will certainly not be a waste of time considering the important message