Fascist Voices Free read ☆ E-book or Kindle E-pub

Download º E-book, or Kindle E-pub  Christopher Duggan

Download º E-book, or Kindle E-pub  Christopher Duggan Ices makes use of rarely examined sources letters and private diaries newspaper reports and secret police files to uncover how ordinary people experienced fascism on a daily basis and how its ideology influenced their beliefs values language and lifestyleTracing fascism from its conception to its legacy Christopher Duggan unpicks why the regime enjoyed so much suppor. Not uite what it promises to be The author only used a small handful of diaries cited very sparingly and for constructing his narrative relied on the same secondary sources as everyone else which is to say the now largely outdated histories of the fascist period written before Renzo De Felice published his biography of Mussolini or as a defense against De Felice's thesesThe one diary that is cited freuently is that of Clara Petacci finally declassified only ten years ago though discouragingly the manuscripts have only made available to three authors so far Heavily redacted editions were published in Italian in 2010 11 by Rizzoli the editors admitted that they were forced to omit over two thirds of the material and had to redact the entries they did include for space considerations and this book seems to have been an attempt to capitalize on their recent publication Unfortunately the Petacci diaries as published by Rizzoli are completely bizarre and self contradictory either because of mistakes by the editors journalists Mauro Suttora and Mimmo Franzinelli or because the diaries themselves are not authentic The biggest issue with the diaries is that they put Mussolini in places he was not at on those days; another strange thing about the diaries is that Petacci who came from a bourgeois family had a good education and by all accounts was not stupid was an absolutely terrible writer Because most of what she wrote makes no sense the nephew of Petacci believes that she was a British secret service agent as a way to explain her often cryptic writinguote mined as they are in Duggan's book they appear to make some sense and so the picture you get of Petacci's writing in this book is a paraphrase of a paraphrase of her actual diaries Another disappointing thing about this book was that there was no room in this intimate history for Mussolini's closest collaborator and lover for 25 years the Italian Jewish socialist Margherita Sarfatti She was with Mussolini from Forlì in 1911 to his time as editor of Avanti to Il Popolo d'Italia in 1915 to the March on Rome in 1922 wrote his official biography Dux in 1925 right up to Mussolini's about face in 1936 when he left the Anglo French Italian alliance and aligned Italy with Germany and Sarfatti suddenly found herself no longer welcome at Palazzo Venezia The name of Sarfatti only appears three times in this book Once in one of the uotes from the Petacci diaries as the well known art patron and critic and Mussolini's biographer and in relation to two brief uotations from her 1925 biography It seems that Duggan doesn't even know who Sarfatti wasNeither was there much room for his wife Rachele Guidi or other collaborators of the early days like Angelo Oliviero Olivetti founder of the Fasci d'Azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista which evolved into the Fasci di combattimento or Angelica Balabanoff Enrico Corradini Alceste de Ambris etc All important figures you can hardly write a book about fascism especially an intimate history without mentioningThe theses seem to be thata Mussolini was a megalomaniac and a buffoon the former of which may be partially true but far from the whole truth and the second of which is the common result of reading too much into and projecting onto Mussolini the worst excesses of Achille Starace's own undeniable buffooneryb fascism was nothing but propaganda and empty promises There was lots of propaganda and it was very powerful and influential but again there was a lot to it than that and a lot was built and achieved for better and for worse in concrete termsc the supposed big revelation from Petacci's diaries that Mussolini was an anti semite based on one sentence out of a diary of tens of thousands of pages and contradicted literally hundreds of times elsewhere not only in speeches but by the fact that he was sleeping with a Jewish woman for 25 years and a disproportionate percentage of the Fascist gerarchs were Jewishd restatement of the Black Legend alleging that Pius XI and Pius XII were Hitler's Popes a conclusion reuiring the author to ignore a truly staggering amount of evidence to the contraryHaving said all of the above good things about this book were that the author writes in an engaging manner and the narrative really flows For the most part he avoids taking an overly polemical tone Where primary sources the only primary sources really used are the aforementioned handful of diaries are used they're well integrated into the rest of the narrativeI think Duggan is a good author but maybe not an outstanding researcher

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Fascist Voices Free read ☆ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ¶ ❰EPUB❯ ✰ Fascist Voices Author Christopher Duggan – Johns-cycling-diary.co.uk Christopher Duggan's new history of fascist Italy explores how the movement became embodied in the person of Benito Mussolini who occupied for many an almost divine status T among the majority of the Italian population He examines the extraordinary personal relationships that millions of Italians had with Mussolini explores the religious dimensions of totalitarianism and discusses why the 'cult of the Duce' still resonates in contemporary Italy Fascist Voices is a fresh and disturbing look at a country in thrall to a charismatic dictat. this epic history of fascist Italy explores the development and support of Italian support for fascism using individual diaries Duggan exploresthe reaosn for support and trust often in Mussolini rather than his ideologically incoherent and oppotunistic Party Buidling on the failure of Liberalism to build an ecomomically strong and modern Italy Mussolini surgeto pwoer was seen as a source of relief by many Italains disnagaed frm politics and looking for a better futureDuggan's work exxplores the failure of Fascism to deliver the modern anti materialistoc and ethical mass nationalism promised and the deepening cyncism of Italians finally destroyed by the debt and disgrace if war this books explains the lack of thorough purge of fascism the attraction of Italian intellectuals to a very Italian forn of socialism and the relentless cynicism about psrty politics that shaped modern society

Christopher Duggan  9 Read & Download

Fascist VoicesChristopher Duggan's new history of fascist Italy explores how the movement became embodied in the person of Benito Mussolini who occupied for many an almost divine status and gave millions of men and women a sense of pride and hope offering the prospect of national regeneration after decades of disappointmentA work of exceptional authority and originality Fascist Vo. This is a disconcerting useful and wonderful book Duggan's aim is to write a history of the fascist regime in Italy through the writings and testimonies of diarists and letter writers he uotes from archives all over Italy most notably the huge collection of letters ordinary Italians wrote to Mussolini which is only a fraction of the original collection most of which was destroyed by wartime bombing Duggan is a fine historian who has written an excellent history of modern Italy and the first thing to say about this book is that it is an excellent way to learn and absorb a complicated history thanks to the vividness of the personalities one meets and also through Duggan's compressed but sure handed connective tissue The story of Mussolini's rise and fall is one I've read many times but I feel this one has fixed it in my mind in a way that none other has doneI'm sure that those with a little knowledge will uibble perhaps rightly with Duggan's selection of uotations and some of his detail I myself felt fresh from a reading of naughty Ernst Nolte's very theoretical and Heiderggerian disuisition on Mussolini and Italian fascism that Duggan avoids discussion of fascist theory but as I kept reading I decided that as a whole the narrative provides and density and seriousness to Mussolini's enterprise The anti bourgeois nature of Mussolini's creation slowly emerges and in a way you can see how Fascist Italy was really a kinder gentler version of the Bolshevik revolution without Cheka mass murders and enslavement And Duggan does speak about moments in history that I almost never see discussed such as that Mussolini sent a uarter of a million Italian soldiers to the Eastern Front who fought alongside the Wehrmacht when it invaded the USSR Here's what's disconcerting Duggan can find very little evidence of any opposition to fascism except among a few professional trade unionists and difficult characters His conclusion and that of the dozens of voices he uotesis that Italy working class middle class academics journalists intellectuals was fairly satisfied with fascism thought it a success not just until but through the atrocious conuest of Ethiopia with poison gas up until Mussolini imposed the racial laws in 1938 at Hitler's urging Moreover even then after an initial feeling that Mussolini had done something really wrong Italians soon began to be irritated by the complaints of Italy's Jews about their deprivation of citizenship and began to feel that perhaps Musso had been right after allIn other words the egregiously shallow claim made by Daniel Goldhagen that all Germans bear racial guilt for the horrors of Nazism is as true about prewar Italians as it is false about Germans My greatest criticism is that Duggan doesn't make much of the the most consistent and continuous source of resistance to the regime which came from serious Catholic laymen and individual priests the middle management of the Church was on board with the regime although Duggan is right to make an exception of the Pope himself Duggan provides plenty of evidence for this the brave young priest who is beaten to death by thugs for keeping his boys in the Catholic scouting movement etc But he doesn't exempt them from general blame Perhaps I am overinfluenced by the great Italian war novel The Red Horse which follows a group of serious young Catholics through the war but this seems to me a blemish and an oversimplification on Duggan's partHere's what's disconcerting