DOWNLOAD ✓ Under Crescent and Cross The Jews in the Middle Ages


Under Crescent and Cross The Jews in the Middle AgesAnd Cross ePUB #180 Did Muslims and Jews in the Middle Ages cohabit in a peaceful interfaith utopia Or were Jews under Muslim rule persecuted much as they were in Christian lands R. I seem to have begun making notes at chapter 5 I can't remember now if I read the first half or not But the author seemed to mix in different times places and types of evidence so I'm not sure how much difference it makes His overall conclusion seemed to be that under Muslim rule things sucked for the Jews but not as much as they sucked under Christian rule In accounting for the fate of the Jews Jewish historiography has traditionally placed considerable emphasis on their economic role in society It was the locus of their most freuent interaction with Christians The early Christians disapproved of the accumulation of wealth especially through commerce Jewish merchants traveled from the Middle East to the west most often taking luxury goods to sell and procuring slaves for sale in Muslim Spain Theologically based hostility to the Jews combined with disapproval of their mercantile activities and general distrust of foreigners to reinforce their marginal status During the urban revival of the 11th and 12th centuries a Christian commercial class emerged Governmental support of Jewish moneylenders to increase tax intake created further hostility Cohen describes an Inverse relationship between Jewish security and general economic well being in Latin ChristendomIn Muslim controlled regions on the other hand Jews were integrated into general economic life A greater variety of occupations were open to them including agriculture Taxation was fairer and less exorbitant Islam's attitude to trade and wealth was positive and many Muslims participated in local and international trade The Arab world was accustomed to foreigners and used contracts and letters of credit suftaja similar to those employed by the Jews Also there Jewish money lending occurred mainly within the Jewish communityCohen defines Hierarchy as the fundamental idea unifying societies composed of different groups He says that in most societies this religious in nature It pertains to status not class Cohen is interested in Marginality Theory a hierarchy where some members of the group do not ualify for admission into another group with which they are closely associated This occurs when these groups differ significantly in cultural or racial heritage or when there is limited cultural or social exchange In the homogeneous Christian west Jews were at a hierarchical low marginalized and excluded In Muslim areas Jews were hierarchically distinct and marginalized in certain ways but not excluded The majority of Jews were urban concentrated in trade centers In Europe the generally lived in separate areas from Christians and were excluded from municipal activities Jews in Muslim areas were integrated into the social order but they still usually lived in a separate street or uarter although this was rarely legislated Christians were opposed to social interaction with Jews In Spain intermarriage and eating or bathing together were prohibited Muslims and Jews socialized freely and could legally intermarry but there were freuent expressions of disapproval or concern over such behaviorJews had participation in Islamic intellectual life than in Christian and a few Jewish holy men were revered by Muslims Christianity was combative toward Jews and if not for Augustine's doctrine of toleration the Jews might have been totally extirpated Jewish commentators responded with midrash and invective Scripture was important in JewishChristian relations but markedly less so in Islamic because the foretellings of Muhammad applied to Jews Islamic theologians were concerned with arguing against Christianity Judaism was hostile to Islam but did not speak of it with the same vitriol it directed towards Christians and Islam was not important to Jewish self definition Cohen argues that persecution and intolerance are innate in monotheistic religions with powerful churches Christians persecuted Jews greatly Muslims persecuted them not uite as much and persecuted Christians Muslims and Christians had different attitudes towards heresy Islam did not share Christianity's irrational fear of Jews Jews in Christian lands have a collective memory of persecution that is not present in Islamic areas

SUMMARY Under Crescent and Cross The Jews in the Middle Ages

DOWNLOAD ✓ Under Crescent and Cross The Jews in the Middle Ages É [PDF / Epub] ☉ Under Crescent and Cross The Jews in the Middle Ages By Mark R. Cohen – Did Muslims and Jews in the Middle Ages cohabit in a peaceful interfaith utopia Or were Jews under Muslim rule persecuted muEjecting both polemically charged myths Mark Cohen Crescent and Cross The Jews Kindle offers a systematic comparison of Jewish life in medieval Islam and Christendom the first in. Let Us Compare MythologiesAn interesting and scholarly read on the large scale socio political relationship of Jews in the middle ages Cohen holds that whereas animosity towards Jews in Christian countries was directed specifically and theologically towards Jews in the case of the Muslim world Jews generally enjoyed or suffered similar treatment to other other dhimmi groups usually ChristiansChapter 1 compares modern mythologies The first is that of the shiny happy dhimmi who was both protected and prospered under Islam Cohen argues that this originated from 19th century Jews hoping to challenge Christian societies to support political emancipation This gets picked up in 20th century polemics as a statement that Jews and Muslims co existed as brothers until the advent of modern ZionismThe contrasting myth is that Jews were always second class citizens victims of a specific intolerance This serves to give a deeper rational for 20th century Arab and Iranian antisemitism and a conjecture which I found interesting but arguable is sometimes used to raise the status of or level of empathy towards Oriental Jews with respect to the narrative of Ashkenazic of pogroms and the HolocaustChapter 2 looks at the theological bases for conflict The Christian vision as the New Israel begged the Augustian uestion that if Christianity replaced Judaism why were the Jews still around Islam instead had the doctrine of tarif that Jews had falsified parts of their Torah and were in error and might still come around In Christians Muslims had a numerous competition to deal with than JewsChapters 3 and 4 The Christian Theodosian later Justinianic Code barred Jews from obtaining political power over Christians; however Jewish serfs were better off than Christian serfs having many of the rights of freemen to move around where they chose Jewish rights eroded from 11th and 14th century where Jews lost the right to bear arms and in France Jews became the property of barons of the territory they lived in In Muslim jurisdictions governed by the Pact of Umar pp55 Jews were sometimes allowed to achieve political office Muslims found honor in fighting than in state service pp67 They were not allowed to bear arms which made them subject to the whims of adi's Sultans brigands and soldiers The hated jizya poll tax was collected from every Jewish male of age and in a manner reuired to symbolically humiliate the payer Dhimmi merchants paid twice the commercial taxes paid by Muslims In certain periods the neck would be stamped as proof of payment; Yet Jews feared that non payment would lead to canceling the Pact and non protectionIn contrast Christendom leaders were bribed to avoid violence against Jews The uncertainly of this arrangement was less preferable and onerousChapter 5 8 examines money lending mercantile rights social relations and residency rights Both societies got around the prohibition against usury by using lenders from other religious groups though Jews were vilified for this in Europe Men could mix socially but women were seuestered in Islam than in Judaism and this was problematic I would have liked to have had material on women Muslim men could marry Jewish women who could privately practice Judaism but not attend synagogue or raise their children as JewsChapter 9 on public religious debates was relevant to Christianity where Jews were forced to engage in a trial by debate of their religious doctrines a difficult position as even if they won they lost Chapter 10 looks at then Jewish response to persecution European Jews tending to memorialize victimhood and to weave it into the Jewish national historic memory whereas Sephardim did not No satisfying explanation was offered Perhaps the answer lies in the host society's notions of time and progress vs timelessnessOne concludes that in both worlds oppression took place that tolerance co existed with intolerance Taking the long view if either society were completely hostile the Jews would not have survived It is also possible to drown in a river who's average depth is only 3 inches How one views this depends which parts of the river you happen to be in at the moment

Mark R. Cohen ✓ 1 DOWNLOAD

Depth explanation of why medieval Islamic Jewish relations though not utopic were less confrontational and violent than those between Christians and Jews in the West Library Journ. Really important book especially for its introduction and opening chapter on the mythcounter myth of Jewish Christian Muslim relations and the modern political developments that have led to the propagation of lachrymoseneo lachrymose history Did not necessarily learn anything I didn't already know from the European perspective but the Muslim perspective was fascinating