Συμπόσιον Ebook ã 144 pages

Book Συμπόσιον

Συμπόσιον Ebook ã 144 pages Þ ➷ [Reading] ➹ Συμπόσιον By Plato ➬ – Johns-cycling-diary.co.uk พบกับผลงานซึ่งแสดงให้เห็นถึงความสามารถทางด้านการประพันธ์ของเพลโตที พว้อย่างน่าพิศวง หากคุณกำลังแสวงหาความหมายของความรัก คุณจะไม่ผิดหวังหากได้อ่านข้อเขียนของเมธียุคโบราณอย่างเพลโ It has been a long time since I first read The Symposium That was back in university in my freshman year course Sexuality in Literature I admit I found it all a bit shocking the open tolerance of sexual relationships between men and boys—wasn’t it pederasty Even now it is surprising to find that one of the most influential and foundational works on love in Western history is largely focused on relationships that have often been deemed illegal Imagine what the medieval Europeans would have thought of this work had it not been entirely inaccessible to them in Latin Maybe they would have enjoyed the notion of spiritual Platonic love but I doubt they would have liked Alcibiades’ intrusionWell after re reading this little dialogue I can only concur with the verdict of the crowd that this is one of Plato’s most perfect works Indeed it is among the handful of Plato’s works that is arguably valuable as literature than as philosophy Plato was a writer in perfect control of his craft; and even little detail of this short dialogue bursts with life The reader feels as if she is really there eavesdropping on a bunch of drunken Athenians as they extemporize on loveFurther organizing the dialogue as a seuence of speeches and not as a dialogue between Socrates and an interlocutor effectively reduces the sometimes unpleasant aspect of Plato’s works—of Socrates forcing his way through an awkward argument as his admirers assent to his every fallacious deduction Plato here shows us a genuine diversity of opinions and styles proving himself a versatile writer His portrayal of Aristophanes is particularly charming and memorable a gentle counter to Aristophanes’ satirical portrayal of Socrates in The Clouds And for anyone who has ever been in love I suspect that Aristophanes’ little myth will be far resonant than the ideal love described by Socrates

Kindle Î Συμπόσιον Ú Plato

ังเป็นตัวอย่างอันยอดเยี่ยมทางด้านวรรณศิลป์ เป็นตำราในประวัติศาสตร์ยุคก่อนที่กล่าวถึงเฉพาะเรื่องราวของความรัก “It’s been less than three years that I’ve been Socrates’ companion and made it my job to know exactly what he says and does each day Before that I simply drifted aimlessly Of course I used to think that what I was doing was important but in fact I was the most worthless man on earth—as bad as you are this very moment I used to think philosophy was the last thing a man should do” In Praise of Love An Encore This is a dialogue about the human aspiration towards happiness and how that desire is best satisfied Plato’s overriding concern as a teacher is how to achieve eudamonia or how to live the good life However this is as difficult a topic to capture in teaching as it is to achieve in action Hence he approaches the topic by defining many peripheral topics by showing various aspects of the good lifeIn The Symposium too the same ultimate uestion is approached this time through the uestion of how to love perfectly Many wonderful explanation of Love are given but in the end it boils down to how to live the good life  through the uestion of what should one love to do and hence what should one do in life The answer that emerges is simple love only things that are ends in themselves do only them Ends in themselves are not to done for any further end to achieve something else And most importantly they should be eternal Symposium The Setting Plato’s dialogues are fictional and often richly dramatic snippets of philosophical imagination The Symposium is a particularly dramatic work It is set at the house of Agathon a tragic poet celebrating his recent poetic victory Those present are amongst the intellectual elite of the day including an exponent of heroic poetry Phaedrus an expert in the laws of various Greek states Pausanias a representative of medical expertise Eryximachus a comic poet Aristophanes and a philosopher Socrates And the political maverick Alcibiades towards the endThe SymposiumThe Symposium consists mainly of a series of praise speeches encomia delivered in the order in which these speakers are seatedThey begin with the discourse of Phaedrus and the series contains altogether eight parts divided into two principal seuences The Speeches 1 Phaedrus Love makes us noble and gods honor it Love is the greatest god Love is nobility This is the simplest of the speechesAn unconditional praising of Love and this from the same Phaedrus who unconditionally condemns it in his own eponymous dialogue 2 Pausanias perhaps the most interesting of these speeches for this reviewer Wants to define Love before praising it Love is not in itself noble and worthy of praise; it depends on whether the sentiments it produces in us are themselves noble Differentiates between “Common Love” “Divine Love” How hasty vulgar lovers are and therefore how unfair to their loved ones Love is like everything else complex considered simply in itself it is neither honorable nor a disgrace its character depends entirely on the behavior it gives rise to The common vulgar lover loves the body rather than the soul his love is bound to be inconstant since what he loves is itself mutable and unstable The moment the body is no longer in bloom “he flies off and away” his promises and vows in tatters behind him How different from this is a man who loves the right sort of character and who remains its lover for life attached as he is to something that is permanent Pausanias goes on from this to provide a theory on the origins of Social Customs of courtship etc We can now see the point of our customs they are designed to separate the wheat from the chaff the proper love from the vile That’s why we do everything we can to make it as easy as possible for lovers to press their suits and as difficult as possible for young men to comply; it is like a competition a kind of test to determine to which sort each belongs This explains two further facts First why we consider it shameful to yield too uickly the passage of time in itself provides a good test in these matters Second why we also consider it shameful for a man to be seduced by money or political power either because he cringes at ill treatment and will not endure it or because once he has tasted the benefits of wealth and power he will not rise above them None of these benefits is stable or permanent apart from the fact that no genuine affection can possibly be based upon themOnly in this case we should notice is it never shameful to be deceived; in every other case it is shameful both for the deceiver and the person he deceives Suppose for example that someone thinks his lover is rich and accepts him for his money; his action won’t be any less shameful if it turns out that he was deceived and his lover was a poor man after all For the young man has already shown himself to be the sort of person who will do anything for money—and that is far from honorable By the same token suppose that someone takes a lover in the mistaken belief that this lover is a good man and likely to make him better himself while in reality the man is horrible totally lacking in virtue; even so it is noble for him to have been deceived For he too has demonstrated something about himself that he is the sort of person who will do anything for the sake of virtue—and what could be honorable than that It follows therefore that giving in to your lover for virtue’s sake is honorable whatever the outcome And this of course is the Heavenly Love of the heavenly goddess Love’s value to the city as a whole and to the citizens is immeasurable for he compels the lover and his loved one alike to make virtue their central concern All other forms of love belong to the vulgar goddess Makes one wonder if we should really be proud of our modern methods sans the niceties of elaborate courtship 3 Eryximachus Differentiates between “Healthy” “Unhealthy” Love doctor that he isEverything sound and healthy in the body must be encouraged and gratified Conversely whatever is unhealthy and unsound must be frustrated and rebuffed that’s what it is to be an expert in medicine 4 Aristophanes  Bases Love on the conception of Longing Completion beautifully illustrated in his famous Myth of Soulmates We used to be complete wholes in our original nature and now “Love” is the name for our pursuit of wholeness for our desire to be completePlato also uses this occasion to make fun of Aristophanes by painting whims lewd and bawdy man given to sensual pleasures and fits of hiccups There are even direct references to Aristophanes’s irreverent clouds “Aristophanes do you really think you can take a shot at me and then escape Use your head Remember as you speak that you will be called upon to give an account Though perhaps if I decide to I’ll let you off” 5 Agathon Decides to stop the praising of Love and focus on the ualities of Love For every praise no matter whose you must explain what ualities in the subject of your speech enable it to give the benefits for which we praise it So now in the case of Love it is right for us to praise him first for what it is and afterwards for its gifts He goes on toe elaborate on the perfection of Love’s ualities about the god’s justice moderation bravery and wisdom and how Love confers all these ualities to its devotees Thus Love is the source of all good according to Agathon 6 Socrates Enough with the Eulogies Socrates sets out with a series of uestions in an attempt to pin down Love “You have beautifully and magnificently expounded his ualities in other ways tell me this too about Love Is Love such as to be a love of something or of nothing He proceeds through the same arguments as in Phaedrus and arrives at “No one is in need of those things he already has”“Whenever you say I desire what I already have ask yourself whether you don’t mean this I want the things I have now to be mine in the future as well Socrates’ Conclusion Love is a lack and desire to fill that It is a desire for something lacking or a desire for preservation of what has been acuired What constitutes eudaimonia is not to be had in a moment in time “In a word then love is wanting to possess the good forever” If this is the objective of Love The next uestion is how to pursue this objectiveAnswer Seek Love in Beauty; and Reproduction and Birth in Beauty The argument does not deviate much from that in Phaedrus; readers will want to compare this speech on Love with those of Socrates in PhaedrusSocrates’ account thus moves from an analysis of the nature of such desire to an account of knowledge and its acuisition; for if we all have a desire for our own good and happiness the issue becomes how to identify correctly the nature of this good He defines intellectual activity to be the best good and central to human happiness than any other activity 7 Alcibiades An almost pointless speech does not contribute much to the dialogue directly and yet it does by adding to the context Plato’s Political Intent Praise Socrates Distance Socrates from the follies of this young manAlcibiades’ account reveals that although he desires the wisdom he perceives in Socrates there is a competing value pulling him away “ Yet when I leave him I am eually aware that I am giving in to my desire for honor from the public so I skulk out of his sight like a runaway slave” This conflict between the attractions of wisdom and the sort of excellence that earns honour from the people is the very one argued out theoretically in Socrates’ speech Alcibiades’ choice to organize his life around the pursuit of personal honor exonerates Socrates from any association with the terrible events that resulted from his choices Socrates was not responsible for the corruption Plato’s Philosophical Intent Also show how even Socrates’ teachings are not flawless Even Philosophy is dependent on good students to produce results Symposium A Conclusion The Symposium belongs with the dialogues concerned with Education especially the moral education of the young Its discussion of the nature and goals of loving relationships takes us to the heart of Plato’s concern with the good life and how it is achieved That Education and Desires are seen to play such an important role in moral development draws on a theme elaborated in the Republic and is concerned with the development of character and how that contributes to the good lifeThough Plato leads us to the lofty heights of the Forms as the true end of our desire for good things and happiness his account is nonetheless one that resonates beyond such abstractions The Symposium does not contain a fully developed theory of the self although it outlines with considerable care the dimensions of concern which preoccupy human beings Its achievement is a rich and unitary image of human strivingThrough this conception even if narrow of a flourishing life where certain things are advocated to the young as valuable the dialogue explores the nature of eudaimonia which may be translated as happiness or flourishing This is ultimately why a dialogue devoted on the surface to the nature of erotic relationships is an ethical work at its core which culminates in the specification of ‘ the life which a human being should live’ And it is this concern that relates the Symposium to a fundamental uestion that informs a variety of Platonic dialogues How should one liveThus Plato’s concern with desire and its role in the good life leads to his conclusion One’s ability to act well and to lead a worthwhile and good life depends in part on desiring the right kinds of things and acting on that basis What or whom one desires determines the choices one makes and thereby affects one’s chances of leading a worthwhile and happy lifeIt is by prompting us to reflect deeply on the relationship between our desires and their real end and the role that our lovers might play in helping us to achieve it that the Symposium really makes its mark

Plato Ú Συμπόσιον Pdf

Συμπόσιονพบกับผลงานซึ่งแสดงให้เห็นถึงความสามารถทางด้านการประพันธ์ของเพลโตที่นอกเหนือจากจะลึกซึ้งด้วยปรัชญาความคิดแล้ว Συμπόσιον Symposium PlatoThe Symposium Ancient Greek Συμπόσιον is a philosophical text by Plato dated c 385–370 BC It depicts a friendly contest of extemporaneous speeches given by a group of notable men attending a banuet The men include the philosopher Socrates the general and political figure Alcibiades and the comic playwright Aristophanes عنوانها ضیافت؛ سخن در خصوص عشق؛ اثر افلاطون؛ تاریخ نخستین خوانش ماه سپتامبر سال 1984 میلادیعنوان ضیافت، یا، سخن در خصوص عشق؛ اثر افلاطون؛ ترجمه و پیشگفتار محمدعلی فروغی؛ ویراستار و پی نوشت محمدابراهیم امینی فرد؛ مشخصات نشر تهران، جامی، 1385، در 160 ص، از مجموعه افلاطون، شابک 9642575000؛ کتاب با عنوان «ضیافت درس عشق از زبان افلاطون» با ترجمه «محمود صناعی» توسط انتشارات جامی در سال 1381 نیز منتشر شده است، چاپ دوم 1386، چاپ سوم 1389؛ موضوع عشق، سقراط 469 تا 399 پیش از میلاد فلسفه یونانپس زمین و عشق بودند، که جانشین هرج و مرج و بی شکلی آغازین هستی شدند این رساله از رساله‌ های سقراطی افلاطون است، که در آنها سقراط، چهره ی نخست رویداد بوده است روایتی‌ ست، که در بخشی از آن خوانشگر شاهد گفتگوی بازیگران آن، با یکدیگر است نام این داستان نیز، اشاره به مهمانی‌هایی دارد، که در یونان باستان برگزار می‌شد، و مهمانان پس از خوردن خوراک، به نوشیدن باده، و گفتگو و بحث، پیرامون موضوعی مشخص، می‌پرداختند تاریخ نگارش این رساله به درستی آشکار نیست، ولی از نشانه ها برمی‌آید، که پس از سال 385 پیش از میلاد، نوشته‌ شده باشد ا شربیانی