eBook ð Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens Paperback ↠ johnscyclingdiary

reader ¸ Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens º Robert Michels

As confined himself to the consideration of salient features In the execution of this design he has received the unwearied and invaluable help of his wife Gisela MichelsAbout the PublisherForgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books Find at wwwforgottenbookscomThis book is a reproduction of an important historical work Forgotten Books uses state of the art technology to Really interesting and lots of great information that shows things have not changed a lot Everything you think is new or cool in the modern socio political sphere isn't It has all been done and thought of before and than once You should have a dictionaryand a translation program Michels uotes a number of people in their original language That is something that has changed I am sure he thought people would still learn other languages This has some dry sections and you may want a notepad for all the names but there are sections that made me laugh This is 113 years old and still a very useful read Check it out

mobi Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens

Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des GruppenlebensDigitally reconstruct the work preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy In rare cases an imperfection in the original such as a blemish or missing page may be replicated in our edition We do however repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works Michels' work is undoubtedly one of the cornerstones of elite theories in political sociology his greatest contribution being the iron law of oligarchy which ha has set out in this work Although his work largely centers around the socialist party structures himself being one and thus having the experience to write on these parties specifically the lessons learnt and conclusions drawn are definitely of a universal nature Although his focus leaves out solutions to the oligarchical tendencies which would have made him wildly utopian he masterfully manages to dissect the political leadership and understand the dynamics which necessitate and help create the political elites which come to dominate over the massesSome reviewers have found this work polemical not deep enough cyclical hard to read and my personal favourite rambling on about people long dead Criticisms of the first four type in my opinion show an impatience towards reading and the expectation that Michels hold the key to life and everything While he most certainly does not have such omnipotence what he has is a clear grasp on facts and a keen sense of authorship which makes this book a delightful and insightful read For the last type of criticism you can laugh until you drop dead because someone expects a book on politics especially one that uses such in depth knowledge of firsthand knowledge of politics and published in 1911 to not make reference to people of the era which are long dead Perhaps they would have like it if the names of Lasalle Proudhon and Bebel were exchanged for Trump Clinton and Obama One cannot ask for what is such a masterful ualitative work to act as if it was simply theoretical or uantitative and then whine because it includes the names and acts of so many long dead people

Robert Michels º Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens mobi

eBook ð Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens Paperback ↠ johnscyclingdiary ´ ➥ [Epub] ➟ Zur SoziologExcerpt from Political Parties A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern DemocracyThe task has been by no means easy So great was the extent of the material which had to be discussed that the difficulties of concise presentation might well seem almost insuperable The author has had to renounce the attempt to deal with the problem in all its extension and all its complexity and h “The democratic current of history resembles successive waves They ever break on the same shoal They are ever renewed” So is the sobering message Michels leaves us with at the end of this book Political Parties is about the so called ‘Democratic Problem’—That every attempt at democratic political organisation is doomed to decay into the very oligarchy it was meant to combat In a word that democracy is impossible Drawing on his own long history in the Socialist Party of Germany Michels aims to demonstrate this ‘Iron Law of Oligarchy’ through the institution of the political party In doing so he hits on many enduring uestions of political power and participation Michels initially outlines three causes for the development of oligarchy in political parties Organisational Psychological and Intellectual Of these the most spurious and least interesting are the psychological causes which follow the typical late nineteenth century crowd psychology of le Bon The two other causes are less dated compelling and fitting of the idea of an ‘iron law’ Organisational causes are the chains and strictures introduced in any kind of collective social organisation If a political party is to have any coherent direction and force it reuires a nucleus that can mobilise and impel all its members in a single direction While the party is still small it is likely that this could be accomplished by all members meeting to discuss important matters freuently to reach a resolution But the the party grows in numbers the difficult spontaneous agreement becomes the difficult freuent meetings become and the important this directing nucleus becomes This nucleus is properly known as the bureaucracy and has been a feature of any political organisation of appreciable size throughout history With the swelling size the perfunctory tasks of this nucleus become full time affairs get dissected and divided between several people and a hierarchy begins to develop uickly this bureaucracy sprawls so extensively and specialised that it becomes impossible for the rank and file of the party to easily replace or even supervise properly; every problem with the division of labour is realised in micro within the party structure itself The party leaders—having at their disposal the entire bureaucratic apparatus— now stand at such a disproportionate advantage to the common member that their position at the top becomes defacto beyond reproach And just like that the transformation from a democratic to oligarchical structure is fait accompliIntellectual causes spring from these organisational changes The distinction between the majority of the political party and its bureaucratic apparatus grows ever wider with time as the complexity of their tasks grow As complexity grows and party work intensive the once voluntary positions are converted to payed positions Freed from ordinary labour the leaders and bureaucrats can dedicate themselves to politicking full time and uickly become adept in the management of opinion and men The ordinary party member has no such advantage exhausted from their ordinary labour they have no time or energy to attend properly to these subjects Conseuently they must defer in decision making to the technocratic elite forming in the upper echelons on the party Soon deserters of the old ruling classes are drawn into the apparatus as the native leaders are in their turn slowly converted by the ruling class through their interactions in politics With every incentive to hold onto their position the bureaucracy becomes conservative and self serving tending to its own preservation than the good of the members they ostensibly serve These disparities in political and social education simply repeat the prevailing wind of oligarchies pastMichels calls this tendency or democracy towards oligarchy “simultaneously depressing and encouraging” I’m not sure what is so encouraging about it but it certainly is a depressing account The book hits on a perennial problem of politics and one that has been discussed since politics has been written about The practice of politics is a demanding task that reuires a great deal of attention and education how do we guarantee that the political class is adept enough to attend to them In much of history this has been achieved through exclusion the political class is simply a single royal family or a collection of wealthy plutocrats comprising an aristocracy who can attend to politics at their own expense Aristotle solved it by having the citizens supported by a vast underclass of slaves à la the helots of Sparta Plato by having a sole Philosopher King But as the franchise expanded and ideas of moral euality started taking root the problem of political participation and education compounded—how do you transform a nation dominated by uneducated subsistence farmers into a liberal utopia of knowing and educated voters? Rousseau seemed pessimistic on this front as shown by his problem of the lawgiver; Mill was optimistic thinking that participation in the political process will serve itself as an education over time; Kant and all the other champions of enlightenment optimism put their trust in the melioristic impulse of rationality All this reminded me of a uote from Baudrillard “after several revolutions and a century or two of political apprenticeship in spite of the newspapers the trade unions the parties the intellectuals and all the energy put into educating and mobilising the people there are still only a thousand persons who stand up and twenty million who remain passive” Though great gains have been made since the early enlightenment the average citizen of any democratic nation still falls far short of the dreams of democratic theorists And Michels has perhaps hit on several of the reasons It may be that until resources are so plentiful and moral advancement so divine true democracy and representation isn’t possible And in lieu of these a pseudo oligarchic structure will have to do And that is the problem with democracy though I’m not sure if it constitutes an ‘iron law’ Unfortunately much of the book itself is bogged down in problems peculiar to the socialist parties of Europe at the time making it a slog to get through It also tended to be uite repetitious and polemical But an interesting and sobering perspective nonetheless Elitist sociology a strange mirror to the writings of anarchists; both make the same prognosis about the state but suggest vastly different cures