The Pope and Mussolini summary Ø 108

free read µ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ï David I. Kertzer

NuAnaliza źródeł niezbędnych do napisania niniejszej książki zajęła autorowi siedem lat Przejrzał dwadzieścia pięć tysięcy stron dokumentów Przebrnął przez niezliczone tomy odtajnionej korespondencji włoskich francuskich brytyjskich amerykańskich i niemieckich dyplomatów przeczytał dzienniki i pamiętniki I jak sam przyznał – opracowanie tych wszystkich materiałów i „rozwiązanie starych łamigłówek było zadaniem wprost porywającym?. My first impression of this book surprised me because I felt a glimmer of sympathy for Mussolini for having to deal with such an intractable man as Pius XI That sympathy uickly dissipated under the barrage of Mussolini's Facist policiesUnfortunately I never felt any sympathy for Pius XI at all He may have meant well but knowing that he could have helped with the downfall of Mussolini in the early days instead he lent his considerable support to the Duce which led me to uestion the pope's thinking As the book progressed I got the idea that Pius XI would have done anything to insure the supremacy of the Roman church He may have detested Mussolini's dealings with Hitler but he was never willing to risk losing the benefits of the Lateran Accords for the Church He might have changed his mind about Mussolini but by 1939 it was too lateThe first part of the book was the most interesting By the time it reached the discourse on the racial laws I felt overwhelmed by the characters involved The strident rationalizations about why some anti Semitism was permissible churned my stomachFinally the author included some information about the Church under Pius XII who had served as his predecessor's Secretary of State Appeasement seemed to dominate his thinking anything not to infuriate Mussolini or HitlerThis is a well researched book but the problem is that many of the characters are reprehensible as is so much of this period in history

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The Pope and MussoliniTrudno o bardziej odmienne postaci Pius XI spędził większość życia pochylony nad średniowiecznymi manuskryptami Benito Mussolini był zanurzonym w teraźniejszości podżegaczem awanturnikiem i antyklerykałem Istniały jednak i podobieństwa Obaj mieli wybuchowy temperament obaj domagali się bezwarunkowego posłuszeństwa i wywoływali u The Pope PDF swoich podwładnych strach obaj uważali komunizm za zagrożenie I z czasem docenili znaczenie współpra. The Pope and Mussolini by David Kertzer won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 2014To be clear this book does not really fit cleanly into the biography genre it is history There are no backstories of Mussolini or Pope Pius XI as children Rather the story covers the years from 1922 to 1944 with the Pope and Mussolini and fascism as the core focusBeyond the good writing this was an enlightening read for me I had a sizable knowledge gap on Italy’s history between 1922 and 1944 This book is contextual It does not spend much time on obscure figures and there are appearances by King Victor Emmanuel Hitler and numerous Cardinals and Vatican clergy We learned that Ambrogio Ratti who became Pius XI was a librarian with a passion for mountain climbing when he became the compromise selection for Pope following Pius X’s death We find that he did not seek out the limelight but was unabashedly anti Semitic and a sexist Two traits that were not so uncommon within the highest ranks of the Catholic Church a hundred years ago Pius curried favor with Mussolini to strengthen his position and the Vatican — whose existence was tenuous than I knew There weren’t even any official diplomatic ties between the Vatican and the Italian government or with the royalty The bad blood began when Victor Immanuel II assumed the title as the King of Italy some six decades earlier So in 1922 Mussolini’s fascist thugs began intimidating — and even murdering political leaders with Catholic political ties — opponents and his fascists took control of the government The new Pope sought to reconcile with Mussolini and this relationship while cool aided both men and their interactions are the central thesis of the book The papacy viewed Jews as the enemy and Mussolini gained the legitimacy he sought as the Italian public was 95% Catholic It is hard to understand exactly why the Papacy’s views were so anti Semitic but it appears to have been the case for millennia Towards the end of Pius’s life he made it clear that the Fascists were taking things too far and he was publicly against Mussolini’s war in Ethiopia He certainly could have been mellowing and also conscious that history would might otherwise judge him harshly Most of us are familiar with Mussolini Not much of his early life is discussed in this book Mussolini was originally a Socialist and after the Great War became a Fascist when the post war power vacuum was created It was easy for the Fascists to cast blame on the Catholic clergy Jews and existing governmental leaders He and his party employed intimidation much earlier than the parallel regime that was forming in Germany Hitler was said to have had a picture of Mussolini in his office and even modeled The Beer Hall Putsch after Mussolini’s coup in 1922 Mussolini for his part was disdainful of Hitler and underestimated him — as did so many others Mussolini’s relationship with Pius was an expedient one He often became agitated when the Pope made political statements even mildly critical of Mussolini’s government I surmise Mussolini would have offed Pius if he could have gotten away with it Mussolini was a known womanizer which is discussed to some degree and his behavior did not please the Pope Mussolini comes across in the book as less of an ideological Fascist and of a classic narcissist Interestingly it was his young lover Clareta Petacci not his wife who was shot in 1945 alongside him by Italian partisans The lovers had been traveling incognito with a group of German soldiers as they all were trying to cross the border out of Italy into Alps before they were stopped by the partisans The Germans made a deal we give you Mussolini and you let us cross the border Mussolini and his lover were ignominiously hung upside down in the Piazza in Milan 4 to 45 stars This was a well researched book and a fast read

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The Pope and Mussolini summary Ø 108 ☆ ❰BOOKS❯ ✭ The Pope and Mussolini Author David I. Kertzer – Trudno o bardziej odmienne postaci Pius XI spędził większość życia pochylony nad średniowiecznymi manuskryptami Benito Mussolini był zanurzonym w teraźniejszości podżegaczem awanturniCy Papież i Mussolini to opowieść o dwóch ludziach którzy w tym samym roku sięgnęli po władzę i zmienili bieg XX wieku Kiedy w roku otwarto tajne archiwa Watykanu a cenne źródła ujrzały światło dzienne możliwe było wreszcie wyjaśnienie co połączyło te dwie postaci i jakie były tego skutki Obrazu dopełniają grube teczki faszystowskiej policji dokumentujące tajemnice i skandale opisane w raportach donosicieli działających za murami Watyka. Italian history and the rise of fascism is not a part of history with which I am familiar Author Kertzer’s massive research reveals the manipulations Pope Pius XI and Mussolini engaged in to bring Italy into WWII on the side of the Nazis The early 20th century brought the two together over their great fear of communismliberalismJewsProtestantismMasons just to name a few I am neither a Catholic nor a participant of an organized religion so I was amazed at the layers of Catholic ‘government’ and the Vatican’s ruling class The back biting and in fighting resembled a middle school student council Pope Pius eventually found himself on a runaway train unable to redirect the scourge of anti semitism and at the end of his life he felt deep failure of his dealings Hopefully his belief in forgiveness led him through the pearly gatesThis is not a light read but extremely detailed and thorough The Italian names can be very confusing and by the end I completely lost the ability to keep them straight But for those who are interested in historical fact this book is supreme Deserving of it’s Pulitzer