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characters Arctic Labyrinth ✓ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB õ [KINDLE] ✽ Arctic Labyrinth Author Glyn Williams – The elusive dream of locating the Northwest Passage—an ocean route over the top of North America that promised a shortcut to the fabulous wealth of Asia—obsessed explorersAginable horrors entire ships crushed mass starvation disabling frostbite even cannibalism in pursuit of a futile goal In Arctic Labyrinth Glyn Williams charts the entire sweep of this extraordinary history from the tiny woefully euipped vessels of the first Tudor expeditions to the twentieth century ventures that finally opened the Passage W. Williams does wonderful historical work on the pursuit of the Northwest Passage Though I used this text as a supplement to research for an interpretation of James Sterling's An Epistle to the Hon Arthur Dobbs Williams was such a wonderful writer that I read the entire book anyway Voyages of Delusion is a wonderful book for the history enthusiast or anyone looking to explore the mysterious frontier of the American colonies

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The elusive dream of locating the Northwest Passage an ocean route over the top of North America that promised a shortcut to the fabulous wealth of Asia obsessed explorers for centuries While global warming has brought several such routes into existence until recently these channels were hopelessly choked by impassible ice Voyagers faced unim. The fabled Northwest Passage that supposedly provided a sea route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans around the top of North America intrigued Europeans for centuries The search for a navigable route around North America was spurred by the dream of riches to be found in the unknown lands to the west and in the Orient as well as to avoid the tortuously long and hazardous route around Cape Horn at the bottom of South America or the even longer route via the Cape of Good Hope The Spanish even had a name for it Anian but their repeated attempts to find it all failed The French also had no success This book provides an overview of the many failed attempts mostly British from James Knight of the Hudson Bay Company to Royal Navy Captains James Cook and George Vancouver and their Spanish and French contemporariesThe voyage of Christopher Middleton in 1741 2 demonstrated how harsh the conditions were in Hudson Bay during winter especially as the men were ill prepared and the fresh food and clothing were insufficient Many succumbed to frostbite or scurvy for which there was no known cure at the time When Middleton returned to England he was accused of lying about his findings by his former sponsor which made it difficult for him to gain further positions But his findings were partly vindicated in a further voyage by William Moor and Francis Smith in 1746 7 which descended into enmity And Middleton's discoveries were further verified 80 years laterBefore the 18th century three Spanish captains claimed to have found the Strait of Anian or the Rio Los Reyes and one of them claimed to have sailed through it to Hudson Bay These accounts coloured the thinking and cartography throughout the 18th century The French produced fantastic maps with a supposed sea within the western half of North America and the navigable channel suggested by the Spanish accounts These drove the thinking of some of the English champions of the Northwest Passage The Spanish accounts eventually proved to be falseCook's third voyage of discovery was brought about through a renewed interest in Britain to find the Northwest Passage from the Pacific as supposedly the Spanish had done It appears that a large reward was put up to persuade Cook to take up this mission Cook and his crew used Russian maps to guide them but these proved to be utterly worthless to the exasperated master navigator He was also led to believe that the polar sea would largely be ice free so that the crew was hugely disappointed to be confronted by an impenetrable ice barrier north of Bering Strait Despite the disappointment and setbacks Cook determined the shape of the Northwest coast of America that had eluded all previous attemptsLa Perouse followed Cook and attempted to find a way through but the weather and time defeated him This and other voyages to the Northwest coast helped to fill in some of the gaps that Cook had missed because he had assumed that some of the strings of coastal islands were the mainland The tremendous number of islands along this coast provided a veritable maze that combined with wishful thinking led many people to believe that the fabled Spanish passage to Hudson Bay existedGeorge Vancouver who had twice sailed with Cook finally put all the mythical passages beyond doubt by meticulously surveying the North West coast from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the north of Kodiak Island AlaskaThe illusory stories of the voyages of Juan de Fuca Bartholomew de Fonte and Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado spurred European geographers and explorers into the search for a navigable passage through North America It took than a hundred years to show that no such passage existed despite the encouragement from land based sponsors This account of the exploration during the 18th century shows that the promise of riches no matter how illusory will drive men to follow mere suggestions It took great navigators to finally dash those dreams but at the same time they filled in the blanks of the North West coast of North America Their achievements have to be admired and celebrated not for their failure to find the impossible but for their determination to disprove fantastic theoriesIn my opinion this is a well researched book that demonstrates the fallibility of human nature when faced with the immense opportunities suggested by others It took the dedicated labours of meticulous men such as Cook Vancouver La Perouse and Malaspina to reveal the truth I give this book 4 stars out of 5

Glyn Williams ↠ 7 characters

Arctic LabyrinthIlliams’s thrilling narrative delves into private letters and journals to expose the gritty reality behind the often self serving accounts of those in charge An important work of maritime history and exploration and as exciting a tale of heroism and fortitude as readers will find Arctic Labyrinth is also a remarkable study in human delusio. written by a scientist or so it seemed A little too dry for my adventurous mind