reader ð Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World 312 pages ´ Jack Weatherford

pdf ↠ Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World À Jack Weatherford

pdf ↠ Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World À Jack Weatherford The name Genghis Khan often conjures the image of a relentless bloodthirsty barbarian on horseback leading a ruthless band of nomadic warriors in the looting of the civilized world But the surprising truth is that Genghis Khan was a visionary leader whose conuests joined backward Europe with the flourishing cultures of Asia to trigger a global awakening an unprecedented explosion of technologies trade and ideas In Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World Jack Weatherford the only Western scholar ever to be allowed into the Mongols’ “Great Taboo” Genghis Khan’s homeland and forbidden burial site tracks the astonishing story of Genghis Khan and his descendants and their conuest and transformation of the world Fighting his way to power on the remote steppes of Mongolia Genghis Khan developed revolutionary military strategies and weaponry that emphasized rapid attack and siege warfare which he then brilliantly used to overwhelm opposing armies in Asia break the back of the Islam This is a book that can and should be read by everyone at least all with the slightest interest in world history I feel this so adamantly since what it tells us does away with serious misconceptions about the Mongol Empire It explains in a clear and comprehensible manner how the world we live in today has been improved by Mongol practices It is stated that the book is revisionary but I believe wholeheartedly in what we are told It is clear and thoroughly documented What we are told just plain makes sense The author is a cultural anthropologist and historianThe book begins with a discussion about the life of Genghis Khan 1162 1227 follows his successors offering detailed information both about Kublai Khan and powerful women of the clan discussing the formation of the Mongol nation in 1206 the suabbling that arose between the successive leaders and concludes with a convincing analysis of how the Mongol Empire has influenced today’s world We all think of the Mongols as barbarians that wrought havoc on the world Few of us are aware of how they opened the world to commerce They opened new trade routes not only of physical goods but for the transmission of ideas and cultures I am daunted because I cannot adeuately express how this book has so changed how I view world history I used to praise the new ideas espoused during the Enlightenment but did you know that Voltaire drew a picture of the savage blood thirsty Mongols that served their own purposes and created a one sided view that hid the truth Chaucer praised Genghis Kahn and Marco Polo did the same for Kublai Kahn; When Christopher Columbus sailed west it was to look for Cathay to reconnect with the fantastic trade routes established by the Mongols I could go on and on showing how what we have been told about these so called barbarians just doesn’t uite add up What is explained here in this book makes sense and it changes how we understand today’s modern world Did you know that Genghis Kahn made the capital of his Chinese Empire present day Beijing in 1266 and that that the Forbidden City was a huge park filled with wild animals where the Mongol leaders lived in ghersyurts? Here in this enclosed area the Mongol leaders lived according to their own Mongol traditions They ate their traditional foods ate with knives which the Chinese found abhorrent drank fermented mare’s milk and practiced their own sports and games so foreign to the Chinese culture around them Did you know that “hooray” is based on a Mongol expression of exuberance? Did you know that Columbus called the red skinned natives he encountered when he landed on the islands off the American mainland Indians because he thought he had met up with the Mongols living south of the Chinese Mongols the Mongols of India? That is why Native Americans originally were called Indians There is so much in this book that makes sense it is like putting together all the pieces of a puzzle and everything fitsKublai Kahn supported universal education with classes held in the collouial language Paper money was invented by the Chinese but he saw its practicality and radically expanded its usage Under his rule China attained its Golden Age of Drama Medical knowledge textile production printing techniues basically all areas of knowledge that were practical and useful were supported and transported to new areas around the world Under the Mongol rule there was religious freedom In the 1200s think of that I listened to the audiobook narrated by Jonathan Davis His pronunciation of Mongol terms is clear The pacing is perfect This is essential in a book of non fiction Along with the download one is given pdf files of maps and diagrams One difficulty that I had when I searched on the net for further information was that often than one name was used for the same person It is also difficult to recognize Mongol names This is easier if you can both see and hear them It is time that we begin to acknowledge the good things Genghis Kahn and Kublai Kahn have given us Read this book and you will stop using the word “Mongolian” as a word of slander

mobi Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

reader ð Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World 312 pages ´ Jack Weatherford ´ ☂ [PDF / Epub] ☁ Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World By Jack Weatherford ✐ – The name Genghis Khan often conjures the image of a relen Lucrative pathways for commerce but also for ideas technologies and expertise that transformed the way people lived The Mongols introduced the first international paper currency and postal system and developed and spread revolutionary technologies like printing the cannon compass and abacus They took local foods and products like lemons carrots noodles tea rugs playing cards and pants and turned them into staples of life around the world The Mongols were the architects of a new way of life at a pivotal time in history In Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World Jack Weatherford resurrects the true history of Genghis Khan from the story of his relentless rise through Mongol tribal culture to the waging of his devastatingly successful wars and the explosion of civilization that the Mongol Empire unleashed This dazzling work of revisionist history doesn’t just paint an unprecedented portrait of a great leader and his legacy but challenges us to reconsider how the modern world was mad A book 17 years in the making packed with superlatives spiced with hyperbole The author's cheerleading aside Khan's numbers and creativity will thrill and bewilder you Alexander? Caesar? Mere light weights who statistically pale next to this titan it's not even close Massive Mongol Moments In 25 years the Mongol army subjugated lands and people than the Romans had conuered in 400 years”“In American terms the accomplishments of Genghis Khan might be understood if the United States had been founded by one of its illiterate slaves who liberated America from foreign rule created an alphabet wrote the constitution established universal religious freedom marched an army from Canada to Brazil in a free trade zone On every level and from every perspective the scale and scope challenge the limits of imagination and tax the resources of scholarly explanation”“His entry into Bukhara followed the successful conclusion of possibly the most audacious surprise attack in military history While one part of his army took the direct route from Mongolia to attack the sultan’s border cities head on he had secretly pulled and pushed another division of warriors over a distance longer than any army had every covered 2000 miles to appear deep behind enemy lines where least expected” “ The Mongol military consisted entirely of cavalry armed riders without a marching infantry so they rarely fought in hand to hand combat The breath or odor of the enemy carried a part of his soul and thus warriors sought to avoid the contamination”“The Mongols easily rode and even fought on frozen lakes and rivers the Volga and the Danube became highways for the Mongols allowing them to ride their horses right up to the city walls during the season Europeans least prepared for”“Khan ordered each man to set 5 camp fires every night on the hills where his army had camped From a distance the small army appeared much larger since they seemed to have ‘ fires than stars in the sky’ ““Khan’s first new law reportedly forbade the kidnapping of women almost certainly a reaction to the kidnapping of his wife Borte He forbade the selling of women into marriage For the same reasons he outlawed adultery”“He instituted a massive lost and found system that continued to grow as his empire spread Any person who found such goods money or animals and did not turn them in would be treated as a thief; the penalty for theft was execution”“In probably the first law of its kind anywhere in the world Genghis Khan decreed complete and total religious freedom for everyone To promote all religions Genghis Khan exempted religious leaders and their property from taxation and all types of public service he later extended the same tax exemptions to a range of professionals including undertakers doctors lawyers teachers and scholars”“The Chinese noted with surprise and disgust the ability of the Mongol warriors to survive on little food and water for long periods Each Mongol unit of 1000 traveled with its own medical unit usually composed of Chinese doctors”“ Genghis Khan never asked his men to die for him he waged war with this strategic purpose in mind to preserve Mongol life Unlike other generals in history who easily ordered hundreds of thousands of soldiers to their death Genghis Khan would never willingly sacrifice a single one”“The Mongols did not find honor in fighting; they found honor in winning They had a single goal in every campaign total victory”“While Europe China and India had only attained the level of regional civilizations the Muslims came closest to having a world class civilization with sophisticated commerce technology and general learning but because they ranked so high above the rest of the world they had the farthest to fall The Mongol invasion caused damage here than anywhere else”“By August 1221 Mongol officials sent their Korean subjects a demand for 100000 sheets of their famous paper The volume of paper shows how rapidly Mongol record keeping was increasing as the size of the empire grew”“The Mongols did not torture mutilate or maim By comparison with the terrifying acts of civilized armies of the era the Mongols did not inspire fear by the ferocity or cruelty of their acts so much as by the speed and efficiency with which they conuered”“Genghis Khan would be accurately described as a destroyer of cities than a slayer of people because he often razed entire cities In a massive and highly successful effort to reshape the flow of trade across Eurasia he destroyed cities on the less important or inaccessible routes to funnel commerce that his army could easily supervise and control To stop trade through an area he demolished cities down to their very foundations”“Because bullion and coins proved bulky to transport the Mongols created a system of paper money exchanges that made trade much easier and safer”“The Mongols planted trees along the sides of roads to shade the travelers in summer”“The Mongol army would fight campaigns that would stretch out over a distance of 5000 miles and than 100 degrees latitude a feat unmatched by any army until World War II”“Preparation for the campaign toward Europe reuired 2 years The Mongols sent in small suads to probe enemy defenses and identify valleys and plains that would best feed sheep or goats and cattle and horses Where the natural grassland seemed inadeuate the Mongols opened up farmland by sending in soldiers to burn villages and farm settlements Without farmers to plow and plant the land it reverted to grassland before the main Mongol army arrived”“ A cadre of Mongol census takers followed the army to record the number of people animals and products seized Then they sent thousands of prisoners to transport the goods back to Karakorum the Mongol capital” “Because of ‘the enormous wickedness of the Jews’ Christians accused them of bringing the wrath of the Mongols From York to Rome angry Christian crowds attacked the Jewish uarters set fire to Jewish homes and massacred the residents”“ In the mere 14 years since the death of Genghis Khan all four of his sons had died Khan’s grandsons raced home to continue their battles against each other in the uest to become the next Great Khan”“The European cities produced little loot Disappointed with the material reward of their invasion and eager to show some profit the Mongol officers struck a deal with the Italian merchants of Crimea This began a long and lucrative relationship between the Mongols and the merchants of Venice and Genoa” “While the Mongol men stayed busy on the battlefield conuering foreign countries women managed the empire”“On July 22 1246 the first envoy arrived in the Mongol court from western Europe He reuired nearly a year to cross Europe Once in the Mongol transport system however he covered 3000 miles in a mere 106 days”“The Mongols loved competitions of all sorts and they organized debates among rival religions the same way they organized wrestling matches”“The Mongol army had accomplished in 2 years what the European Crusaders had failed to do in 2 centuries of sustained effort They had conuered the heart of the Arab world No other non Muslim troops would conuer Baghdad or Ira again until 2003”“Khubilai Khan’s genius derived from his recognition that he could not conuer all of China by mere force He built a Chinese capital took Chinese names created a Chinese dynasty and set up a Chinese administration He won control of China by appearing to be Chinese than the Chinese”“During the Mongol era the whole complex of the Forbidden City was filled with gers yurts where members of the court often preferred to live sleep and eat While Khubilai and his successors maintained public lives as Chinese emperors behind the walls of the Forbidden City they continued to live as steppe Mongols”“The Mongols reduced by nearly half the number of capital offenses in

Jack Weatherford À Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World mobi

Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern WorldIc world and render the ard knights of Europe obsolete Under Genghis Khan the Mongol army never numbered than 100000 warriors yet it subjugated lands and people in twenty five years than the Romans conuered in four hundred With an empire that stretched from Siberia to India from Vietnam to Hungary and from Korea to the Balkans the Mongols dramatically redrew the map of the globe connecting disparate kingdoms into a new world order But contrary to popular wisdom Weatherford reveals that the Mongols were not just masters of conuest but possessed a genius for progressive and benevolent rule On every level and from any perspective the scale and scope of Genghis Khan’s accomplishments challenge the limits of imagination Genghis Khan was an innovative leader the first ruler in many conuered countries to put the power of law above his own power encourage religious freedom create public schools grant diplomatic immunity abolish torture and institute free trade The trade routes he created became So while I rated this at three stars I don't want you to think this is not a good book or that you shouldn't pick it up It is actually a rather good introductory book about Genghis Khan and the Mongols It does a wonderful job discussing Genghis's early life an area that I knew little about and showed how the traumas of his youth which were legion influenced the man and empire builder he became It was rather illuminating in that regard even as it related the story of the Mongols I was already familiar with The tragedies his family endured seemed to have instilled in him a profound determination to defy the strict caste structure of the steppes to take charge of his fate and to rely on alliances with trusted associates rather than his family or tribe as his primary base of support My issue with the book was due to it not holding up the promise of the title It is clear that Weatherford has a great passion for Mongolian history but I fear he bit off than he could chew with his title I will certainly concede that the Mongolian Empire was uniue for its time The Mongols were always a minority where they ruled so they could not use the traditional tool of Empire building the fist of the army as their only strategy Instead they had to adapt to the people they conuered and look everywhere they could for innovative means of preserving their power and influence Whether in their policy of religious tolerance devising a universal alphabet maintaining relay stations playing games or printing almanacs money or astronomy charts the rulers of the Mongol Empire displayed a persistent universalism Because they had no system of their own to impose upon their subjects they were willing to adopt and combine systems from everywhereWithout deep cultural preferences in these areas the Mongols implemented pragmatic rather than ideological solutions They searched for what worked best; and when they found it they spread it to other countries They did not have to worry whether their astronomy agreed with the precepts of the Bible that their standards of writing followed the classical principles taught by the mandarins of China or that Muslim imams disapproved of their printing and painting The Mongols had the power at least temporarily to impose new international systems of technology agriculture and knowledge that superseded the predilections or prejudices of any single civilization; and in so doing they broke the monopoly on thought exercised by local elites This universalist and pragmatic approach certainly generated ualities that we find in today's modern world religious tolerance secular governance emphasis on technological achievement paper money state support of long distance trade etc But these ualities did not have any sort of lasting impact on the world Because of their universalist outlook and light for the times footprint on their conuered populations the Mongol Empire left little in the way of lasting cultural achievements Many were merely absorbed into the local culture even as Mongol Dynasties continued to rule Their legacy was written by the people they conuered China or threatened Europe and that history did their legacy no favorsAll the trappings we now see as modern for the most part perished with the various successor Kingdoms The Mongols may have shown hints of what the Modern World would becomes but they by no means set the world onto this path to modernity In my opinion the book doesn't even make an effort to support its thesis devolving into a general history of the Mongols than offering some convincing through story of how they contributed to making the Modern worldSo don't approach this book expecting some grand theory of history with the Mongols providing some pivotal trans civilizational transformation as I did Instead approach it as a really good if broad examination of how the Mongolian Empire came to be was sustained and ultimately shattered In that light it is a good gateway book to deeper dives into the fascinating and uniue Mongolian Empire